Most of his adolescent years were spent in Russia, but with his father at the age of 10, they returned to Germany. The British soon evacuated Philadelphia and headed north to defend their stronghold in New York City, and on June 19, 1778, Washington’s troops marched out of Valley Forge in pursuit. He served as Inspector General and a Major General of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. BARON … Friedrich Wilhelm August Heinrich Ferdinand Steuben, also known as Baron von Steuben, Frederick William, and Freiherr von Steuben, was a military officer who served in Prussia and later in America during the American Revolutionary War. Valley Forge was a naturally defensible plateau where they could train and recoup from the year’s battles while winter weather, impassable roads, and scant supplies stopped the fighting. The Baron sought positions with the British, French, and Austrian armies and failed. Baron von Steuben worked to bring uniformity to the continental soldiers, who had seen combat, but lacked the martial training to pose an effective threat to the British. Even though camp markets and the establishment of a center for commissary operations brought food and supplies into camp, the establishment of the winter camp so close to the British caused the men additional hardship. But he also wrote "The Blue Book," a manual of army regulations and procedures that was still in use by the War of 1812. — Baron von Steuben to Baron de Gaudy, 1787-88. The rifle twirling is, however, entirely a recent officer thing. However, the British had actually been in Virginia since January 1781 with 2,000 men under Benedict Arnold. Friedrich Wilhelm August Heinrich Ferdinand Freiherr von Steuben (born Friedrich Wilhelm Ludolf Gerhard Augustin Freiherr von Steuben; September 17, 1730 – November 28, 1794), also referred to as Baron von Steuben (German: [fɔn ˈʃtɔʏbn̩]), was a Prussian and later an American military officer. These reforms in supply systems and fighting tactics, along with reforms in military hygiene and army organization, became the foundation of the modern United States Army. The significance of the encampment lies both in its fact-based history and also its storied myth. Which is a good thing since it went so poorly. The Nib is entirely independent! On Baron von Steuben. Unlike most online dictionaries, we want you to find your word's meaning quickly. Most agreed that their log accommodations were “tolerably comfortable.”. Steadfast patriotism found a long-term home among only a few Americans, most notably the veterans who served for the duration. One of the most immediate remedies against the weather and a lack of clothing was the construction of log shelters by the men. Thanks to the contributions of von Steuben and others, the Continental Army was more unified than ever before. Valley Forge was the first winter encampment where many thousands of men had to build their own huts. The troops who came to camp included men from all 13 original colonies and regiments from all of them except South Carolina and Georgia. Von Steuben taught the soldiers new military skills and to fight as a unified army. He also transformed the encampments from filthy huts into livable conditions with a regimented organization complete with record-keeping systems. ." Despite the difficulties, there were a number of significant accomplishments and events during the encampment. They often […] Monmouth hurt the British in the short term and provided the Americans with a long-term boost in confidence. The World is Doomed. “The seemed to me a perfect personification of Mars. The women present at Valley Forge included approximately 400 enlisted men’s wives who followed the army year-round and a few general officers’ wives who came on extended visits. Baron von Steuben, also called Frederick William, Freiherr von Steuben, in full Frederick William Augustus, Freiherr von Steuben, original name Friedrich Wilhelm Ludolf Gerhard Augustin von Steuben, (born September 17, 1730, Magdeburg, Prussia [Germany]—died November 28, 1794, near Remsen, New York, U.S.), German officer who served the cause of U.S. independence by converting the … Instead of being able to focus on building the camp and obtaining much needed rest, the troops had to expend energy on security operations. With the prince short on funds, he accompanied him to France in 1771 with the hope of securing a loan. The Valley Forge encampment occurred during the third year of the war. He persuaded Congress to reform the supply system and end the crippling shortages, and attracted experienced officers to the cause, including former Prussian officer Baron von Steuben, who was assigned the task of training the troops. — Captain Alexander Graydon 24 August 1777. TIL that Baron Friedrich Von Steuben, Revolutionary War General, hero, and founder of America's professional military, was gay. Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben by Charles Wilson Peale, 1780n Von Steuben was born in Magdeburg fortress where his father was an engineer lieutenant in the military in 1730. Water. You can use the drop down menus above to choose a celebrity birthday by name or celebrity birthday by month. So in September 1777, von Steuben boarded a 24-gun ship named Heureux -- but, for this voyage, the ship's name was changed to Le Flamand, and the baron's name was entered onto the captain's log as "Frank." The British withdrawal from Pennsylvania protracted the war and played into his plans. Lasting six months, from December until June, the encampment was as diverse as any city, with people who were free and enslaved, wealthy and impoverished, speakers of several languages, and adherents of multiple religions. It is celebrated in many cities across the country on a weekend in mid-September. The last native people to inhabit the area were the Lenape, known today as the Delaware. Almost from the war’s outset, Washington had argued for a large professional army. The men of this establishment formed the bulk of the professional force that would fight the rest of the war. Such emotional relationships were not as unusual in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries as they would be today, but even by the standards of those chivalrous, chastely romantic times, Steuben's correspondence, and intimate relationships, make for a very compelling picture. He was commissioned Inspector-General on May 5, 1778. Two events that occurred during the encampment strengthened George Washington’s authority. Ex-Prussian soldier Baron Von Steuben arrived at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, where he was met with an undisciplined and unprepared, ragtag group of soldiers. One observer of the march through the city that summer prophetically stated that, [The men] though indifferently dressed, held well burnished arms, and carried them like soldiers; and looked, in short, as if they might have faced an equal number with a reasonable prospect of success. On the march south, Washington paraded the American army through Philadelphia to impress the various factions among the citizenry with the prowess of the patriot force. 1 year ago. A Brief Overview of the Encampment In spite of the resentment leveled at them, it was often the Quakers and other religious societies such as the Bethlehem and Lititz Moravians and the Ephrata Cloister members who rendered valuable assistance to sick soldiers while many citizens stood aside. The encampment experience could be characterized as “suffering as usual,” for privation was the Continental soldier’s constant companion. . Pre-encampment In order to put the army on firmer footing, in 1777 the Continental Congress allowed George Washington to recruit soldiers for longer enlistments. At the Village of Valley Forge, a musket factory was established even before the revolution ended. Baron von Steuben was born in Magedburg Germany. In the summer of 1778, Washington could claim that the war effort was going well. The army hereafter would be more cohesive, healthier, and highly efficient. Originally from the Duchy of Magdeburg, Friedrich received his education from the Jesuits in the garrison towns Neisse and Breslau. The genius of this nation is not in the least to be compared with that of the Prussians, Austrians, or French. The soldiers, while not well supplied, were not downtrodden. The history of the raid and Von Steuben’s role are actually considered a minor sideshow of the war. The army reorganization was one of the most far-reaching consequences of the committee’s work. cold ragnar. By the time of the encampment, most of the land in the vicinity had been cleared for agriculture. Valley Forge provides a site for exploring this complicated story and examining the multiple perspectives of those involved there – from soldiers to citizens, officers to enslaved Americans, from women to American Indians – the encampment was a microcosm of a revolutionary society at war. The land itself was pockmarked with entrenchments, muddy military roads and paths, some 2,000 huts, offal and other refuse pits, and work areas. Europeans began to settle the region in the late 17th century and gradually displaced the natives. He set aside his lavish lifestyle to stand next to his good friend, George Washington, and transform a ragtag group of farmers and hunters into the world’s premier fighting force. LEARN MORE. reading nook of the Potawatomi Inn 2012 Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of State Parks and Reservoirs 2008, p. 3 Steuben County Lakes and Lake George Steuben County Indiana is a recreational lake on the Indiana - Michigan state line, located two - thirds in Steuben County and one - third in 214 ha of lakes and 17 miles 27 km along the Pigeon River. On June 28, at the Battle of Monmouth, New Jersey, Washington’s men demonstrated their new battlefield skills, as they forced the British from the field. Together. Ever since the statue has been in front of the Baron von Steuben will be remembered as a military genius who helped turn the tide in favor of the Patriots. In the 19th century, iron mills and later a steel mill were operated there, as well as textile factories; saw, paper, and grist mills; wharves and a towpath associated with the Schuylkill Navigation Canal; a rail line with freight and passenger stations; stone and sand quarries; a water bottling plant; and enterprises including a hotel, stores, blacksmiths, and a tannery. New York City hosts a German-American Steuben Parade annually which is one of the largest parades in the city. As he chose a site, Washington had to balance the congressional wish for a winter campaign to dislodge the British from the capital against the needs of his weary and poorly supplied army. Trivia Baron von Steuben is voiced by Arnold Schwarzenegger. Valley Forge was demographically, militarily, and politically an important crossroads in the Revolutionary War. In the two key battles of the Philadelphia campaign, Brandywine and Germantown, the Americans fought with skill and courage. Word came in May to General Washington that the long-sought alliance with France was secured. In 1747, at 17, von Steuben enlisted in the Prussian army as a lance-corporal. Most of his adolescent years were spent in Russia, but with his father at the age of 10, they returned to Germany. “Only fancy to yourself, an old German Baron, with a large brilliant star on his breast, three French aides-de-camp and a large, spoiled Italian dog, and none of all that company could speak a word of English.” Patreon Further Reading/Principle Sources: Lockhart, Paul Douglas. Indeed, General Nathanael Greene believed that the troops had “fled from victory” at Germantown. Arnold Whitridge describes how a veteran from Frederick the Great’s army crossed the Atlantic in 1777 and helped to train the Continental forces. In the former episode, he arrived with his two aides as well as his pet dog, to Valley Forge, where he would train the Continental Army into a more formidable force. While most were of English descent, African, American Indian, Austrian, Dutch, French, Germanic, Irish, Italian, Polish, Portuguese, Prussian, Scottish, Spanish, and Swedish persons also filled out the ranks. A fraternal organization, named the Steuben Society, is one of the largest societies for those of German-American backgrounds. Instead, von Steuben demonstrated to the men the positive results that would come from retraining. And he was on his way to the colonies. Er reorganisierte die Kontinentalarmee im Amerikanischen Unabhängigkeitskrieg. (Department of Defense photo by Terrence Bell) Marching orders. Baron von Steuben will be remembered as a military genius who helped turn the tide in favor of the Patriots. 4.0k. As winter wore on, the so-called cabal dissolved, bringing disgrace to and ending the careers of several of its leaders. Baron Friedrich Wilhelm Augustus von Steuben was born on September 17, 1730, in the fortress town of Magdeburg in Prussia but spent most of the first decade of his life in Russia with his father. In mid-June Washington’s spy network informed him that the British were about to abandon Philadelphia. In February, 1778, Baron Friedrich von Steuben arrived at Valley Forge, where Washington appointed him unofficial Inspector General of the camp shortly thereafter. Dedicated surgeons, nurses, a small pox inoculation program, and camp sanitation regulations limited the death tolls. Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben was a Prussian Army officer who volunteered to come to the American colonies and serve as inspector general for the Continental Army. In late 1777 while the British occupied the patriot capital of Philadelphia, Washington decided to have his troops winter at Valley Forge, a day’s march from Philadelphia. With these changes came many new opportunities, however. German-Americans especially love to celebrate this day and many people consider it the precursor to Oktoberfest. Baron von Steuben. • Posted by 1 year ago. In addressing the pain of separation between young lovers, General Washington crafted a clever remark that Pierre-Ėtienne Du Ponceau remembered from the encampment at Valley Forge in the winter of 1777-1778. With Neal Hurst, Matthew Keagle, Bryan Kennedy, Stuart Lilie. King of Prussia, PA The Continental Army forced the British to retreat at the battle of Monmouth, New Jersey, in June 1778, and fought with skill in the southern campaigns that led to the victory at Yorktown in 1781. During the encampment, nearly 2,000 men died of disease. After they abandoned Philadelphia, the British had little to show for all of their past year’s efforts. Name the person whose heroic naval efforts are still remembered today. Distressed and haughty New England officers in camp leveled their most impassioned complaints at the locals who did not appear to support the cause. Early successes against a smaller British army had led some Revolutionary leaders to believe that the righteousness of their cause and a militia-type force composed of citizen soldiers would be enough to force the British from America. Yet work remained to be done. Along Valley Creek, an iron works named Valley Forge was established, and a small industrial village including charcoal houses, a saw mill, grist mill, and company store grew up around it. To accomplish this objective, the British commander in chief, Sir William Howe, set sail from New York City in July 1777 with nearly 17,000 of His Majesty’s finest troops on board transport ships. As the campaign wound down through the months of November and December, Washington maintained strong offensive pressure on the British in the city. Valley Forge and the Revolution put the United States on a long road to defining those ideals in ways satisfactory to all – a process still in the making. The general lobbied Congress to confer with him in person in order to resolve some of the supply and organizational difficulties that had plagued the army during the 1777 campaign. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_Wilhelm_von_Steuben 2 Download PDF Version) Baron Steuben Walden Jr. King Friedrich Wilhelm II was one of his godfathers, which indicated that the family stood high in royal favor at that time (Lockhart 2). Arnold Whitridge | Published in History Today Volume 26 Issue 7 July 1976. The number of soldiers present ranged from 12,000 in December to nearly 20,000 in late spring as the army massed for the campaign season. Shortages of clothing did cause severe hardship for a number of men, but many soldiers had a full uniform. These returns reveal that two-thirds of the men who perished died during the warmer months of March, April, and May, when supplies were more abundant. At the time, Du Ponceau was serving as the secretary of Baron von Steuben. It would be difficult to imagine a scenario in which the leader of a popular revolution stood by while his men froze and starved. Log in sign up. Steuben illustrated leadership by sanitizing the army camps and by disciplining and training the Continental Army to face the more experienced British army. He served as Inspector General and a Major General of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. SIGN UP for our newsletter Often referred to as Baron von Steuben, the German-born military officer was George Washington’s chief of staff. The winter encampment at Valley Forge is one of the most famous episodes of the American Revolution. Posted by 1 year ago. 1400 North Outer Line Drive The committee emerged from the Valley Forge meeting with a better understanding of the logistical difficulties Washington faced and more sympathetic to the army’s requirements. It was founded in 1918 and was instrumental in helping German-Americans post-WWI and WWII, when there was a lot of stigma surrounding their heritage. A new professionalism was born. Likewise, patriotism did not peak during the relatively short six-month period at Valley Forge. Which is a good thing since it went so poorly. Widespread devotion to the cause was an early war phenomenon for the most part. Troops today still follow this regulation to a T when it comes to the dress uniform — albeit without the swords. Farmers quickly recovered, and within the decade the huts were largely gone, fields replanted, and woodlots re-sprouted. On arrival in December 1777, a Continental soldier would have seen an open, rolling landscape divided into many small crop fields and pastures by fences and hedgerows; woodlands and charcoal hearths on the mountains; and the smattering of structures in the Village of Valley Forge, including the ruins of the forges themselves - burned during a raid by the British three months earlier. He persuaded Congress to reform the supply system and end the crippling shortages, and attracted experienced officers to the cause, including former Prussian officer Baron von Steuben, who was assigned the task of training the troops. By the time of Valley Forge, however, most Americans realized that the Revolution would be a long, drawn-out affair. Baron von Steuben worked to bring uniformity to the continental soldiers, who had seen combat, but lacked the martial training to pose an effective threat to the British. Washington’s authority was strengthened, as loyal supporters rallied to defend and exalt the commander in chief. The Baron von Steuben memorial was unveiled on October 9, 1915. Doctors dispatched the most serious cases to outlying hospitals, both to limit disease spread and also to cure those individuals who could be saved. Rather than wait for deliverance, the army procured supplies, built log cabins to stay in, constructed makeshift clothing and gear, and cooked subsistence meals of their own concoction. The army placed the 2,000-odd huts in parallel lines, and according to one officer, the camp “had the appearance of a little city” when viewed from a distance. The statue of Baron von Steuben, Steuben County's namesake, is all decorated for the holidays in this recent night photo. Washington, always the diplomat, wrote of the general and friend rather than of von Steuben’s personal life, practicing today’s notion of “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell.” The Baron is a puzzle. Shortly thereafter, von Steuben began using the title "baron." STEUBENVILLE — A longtime educator is being remembered for sharing his knowledge and love of music with hundreds of students and community members. The most common killers were influenza, typhus, typhoid, and dysentery. . He retired from military service in March 1784. The efforts of American agents in France and the strong performance of the continentals at the Battles of Saratoga and Germantown convinced the French to do more than provide covert aid. At age 10 he returned to Germany and attended more formal schooling. The desire to commemorate began to shape the history of this place soon after the army marched out. Although most soldiers came from a Protestant background, Catholic and Jewish personnel also were among those in camp. They were cautiously optimistic about the future and resigned themselves to the task of establishing their winter camp. The “Blue Book,” as it became known, served as the official U.S. military guide until 1812. Become a member today to support us publishing great comics. Washington recognized the strain that this situation placed on his men and rewarded them with two months’ hardship pay. The men spent extra-long hours on duty patrolling, standing guard, and manning dangerous outposts near the city and the enemy. The mythical narrative is important in its own right for it reveals something about our character in the heroic way we wish the Revolution to be remembered. The army buried the soldiers who died in these out-of-the-way care facilities in church graveyards adjacent to the hospitals. General Von Steuben’s Headquarters. The popularity of the myth also speaks to its usefulness. “Baron Von Steuben” was responsible for whipping the the U.S. military into shape when things were looking bleakest. Ever since the statue has been in front of the Archived. 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