The fall of the Aztec Empire was the key event in the formation of the Spanish Empire overseas, with New Spain, which later became Mexico. Released Dec 8th, 2020.Ranked 21,699 of 151,099 with 1 (1 today) downloads. The Cazonci was tried with plotting a rebellion, withholding tribute, sodomy and heresy, and he was tortured and executed. Some of these reasons were poor relationships with other tribes, economic troubles, the Spaniards weaponry while in battle, and the disease known as smallpox was spreading. Cortés’s victory at Tenochtitlán set in motion the rapid collapse of the Aztec empire. [70], On 23 September 1519, Cortés arrived in Tlaxcala and was greeted with joy by the rulers, who saw the Spanish as an ally against the Aztecs. Their capital was used as a cosmic center, where they fed sacrifices to the gods through both human bodies and bloodletting. [45], In 1510, Aztec Emperor Moctezuma II was visited by Nezahualpilli, who had a reputation as a great seer, as well as being the tlatoani of Texcoco. [39] Another indigenous account compiled by a Spanish friar is Dominican Diego Durán's The History of the Indies of New Spain, from 1581, with many color illustrations.[40]. [47]:88, 107 Cortés quickly persuaded the Totonac chiefs to rebel against the Aztecs, taking prisoner five of Moctezuma's tax collectors. New Spain Late December – Spanish-Tlaxcalan forces return to the Valley of Mexico; join with Texcocan forces of Ixtlilxochitl, February – combined Spanish-Tlaxcalan- Texcocan forces attack Xaltocan and Tlacopan; Texcoco become the base of operations for the campaign against Tenochtitlan, Early April – attacks against Yautepec and Cuernavaca, following by sacking, Mid-April – Combined forces defeated by the Xochimilcans, Tenochtitlan's ally, 10 May – Start of the siege of Tenochtitlan; potable water from Chapultepec cut off, 30 June – Defeat of Spanish-Tlaxcalan forces on a causeway; capture and ritual sacrifice of the Spaniards and their horses in Tenochtitlan, July – Spanish ships land at Veracruz with large numbers of Spaniards, munitions, and horses, 1 August – Spanish-Tlaxcalan-Texcocan forces enter the Plaza Mayor; last stand of the Aztec defenders, 13–17 August – Wholesale sacking and violence against the survivors in Tenochtitlan, November – Death of Cortés's wife, Catalina Suárez, in Coyoacan, where Cortés was resident while the new capital, Cortés's Second Letter to the crown is published in Seville, Spain, February – execution of the three rulers of the former Triple Alliance, including Cuauhtemoc, Don Juan Velázquez Tlacotzin, former "viceroy" (, A column of fire that appeared from midnight until dawn, and seemed to rain fire in the year 1517 (12-House), A lightning bolt destroying the straw temple of, The appearance of fire, or comets, streaming across the sky in threes during the day, The "boiling deep," and water flooding, of a lake nearby Tenochtitlan. Conquest: Cortes, Montezuma, and the Fall of Old Mexico. These two accounts are full-blown narratives from the viewpoint of the Spanish opponents. After hearing about the fall of the Aztec Empire, Tarascan ruler (Cazonci) Tangaxuan II sent emissaries to the Spanish victors (the Tarascan state was contemporary with and an enemy of the Aztec Empire). During this same period, soon after he arrived, Cortés was welcomed by representatives of the Aztec Emperor, Moctezuma II. A text from the Nahua point of view, the Anales de Tlatelolco, an early indigenous account in Nahuatl, perhaps from 1540, remained in indigenous hands until it was published.[when?] [47]:193 Finally, La Malinche informed Cortés, after talking to the wife of one of the lords of Cholula, that the locals planned to murder the Spanish in their sleep. The letter has been published in Nahuatl and English translation by James Lockhart in We People Here: Nahuatl Accounts of the Conquest of Mexico in 1991. Conquerors' accounts exaggerate individual contributions to the Conquest at the expense of their comrades, while indigenous allies' accounts stress their loyalty and importance to victory for the Spanish. The Azteca and Tlaxcalteca histories of the events leading up to the massacre vary; the Tlaxcalteca claimed that their ambassador Patlahuatzin was sent to Cholula and had been tortured by the Cholula. Fall of Aztec Empire For many years now, historians have pondered upon the many reasons for the fall of the Aztec Empire. A whole generation of Spaniards later participated in expeditions in the Caribbean and Tierra Firme (Central America), learning strategy and tactics of successful enterprises. [47]:278–79 Many of the nobility rallied around Cuitláhuac,[47]:294 the brother of Moctezuma and his heir-apparent; however, most of them could take no overt action against the Spanish unless the order was given by the Emperor. She is often known as La Malinche and also sometimes called "Malintzin" or Malinalli, her native birth names. [32], Two lengthy accounts from the defeated indigenous viewpoint were created under the direction of Spanish friars, Franciscan Bernardino de Sahagún and Dominican Diego Durán, using indigenous informants. The surviving Aztec people were forbidden to live in Tenochtitlan and the surrounding isles, and were banished to live in Tlatelolco. [47]:172–74, As before with other native groups, Cortés preached to the Tlaxcalan leaders about the benefits of Christianity. She would then translate from Mayan to Nahuatl. They had great incentive to claim they did, owing to the laws of Spain at this time, but critical analysis of their personal writings suggest Motecuhzoma was not taken captive until a much later date. The fall of Tenochtitlan took place about two years following Hernán Cortés’ arrival in Aztec territory. )[citation needed]. [47]:80, 82. He accepted the gifts of the Aztec ambassadors, and at the same time accepted the offer of the Tlaxcalan allies to provide porters and 1,000 warriors on his march to Cholula. In the decade before the Spanish arrived in Mexico, Aztec Emperor Montezuma II and his people were filled with a sense of foreboding. Howard F. Cline, "Evolution of the Historia General" in, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Iberian Peninsula and South America (1762–63), Banda Oriental and Rio Grande do Sul (1762–63), Narrative of Some Things of New Spain and of the Great City of Temestitan, The True History of the Conquest of New Spain, Fall of Tenochtitlan § Siege of Tenochtitlan, History of Morelos, Conquest and Revolution, Historiography of Colonial Spanish America, "Tactical Factors in the Spanish Conquest of the Aztecs", https://www.thoughtco.com/hernan-cortes-conquest-of-aztecs-timeline-2136533, https://itunes.apple.com/us/book/conquest/id593921773?mt=11, http://www.mexicoarcheology.com/cempoala/, "Affirmative action and Hernán Cortés (1485–1547) : Mexico History", "The Columbian Mosaic in Colonial America", History of the Conquest of Mexico, with a Preliminary View of Ancient Mexican Civilization, and the Life of the Conqueror, Hernando Cortes, University of Wisconsin Digital Collections Center, La Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España, Independence of Spanish continental Americas, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northernmost France, Law of coartación (which allowed slaves to buy their freedom, and that of others), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Spanish_conquest_of_the_Aztec_Empire&oldid=992977018, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2017, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from October 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2016, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2011, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, February 1519 – 13 August 1521 against the, 1428 – Creation of the Triple Alliance of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan, 1492–93 – Columbus reaches the Caribbean; start of permanent Spanish settlements, 1493–1515 – Spanish exploration, conquest, and settlement in the Caribbean and the, 1503–09 – Moctezuma's coronation conquests, 1504 – Hernando Cortés arrives in the Caribbean, 1511– Spanish viceroy in the Caribbean appoints Diego Velázquez to conquer and govern Cuba, 10 February – Cortés expedition leaves Cuba taking Hernández de Córdoba's route. Cortés's conquest has been depicted in numerous television documentaries. [47]:220–21 At the end of this explanation, the Emperor pledged his loyalty to the King of Spain and accepted Cortés as the King's representative. After the Spanish conquest, the empire of the Aztec was destroyed, but their civilization remained an important influence on the development of Mexican culture. It's good to learn about Cortes' background, but White pads the book with a boring version of the entire history of Spain from Roman times through the … In fact, "Cortes owned several hundred, used mainly in gold placering." [42]:66–68[47]:270–72 Finally, Moctezuma let the Catholic conquistadors build an altar on their temple, next to the Aztec idols. The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most significant in the fall of the aztecs. Due to some horrifying instances of abuse against the native peoples, Bishop Bartolomé de las Casas suggested importing black slaves to replace them. Córdoba was mortally wounded and only a remnant of his crew returned to Cuba.[47]:15–26. After the Spanish conquest of central Mexico, expeditions were sent further northward in Mesoamerica, to the region known as La Gran Chichimeca. Moctezuma II, the Aztec ruler, tried to make peace, inviting the new arrivals into Tenochtitlán but the Aztec people revolted. [47]:281, Leaving his "least reliable soldiers" under the command of the headstrong Pedro de Alvarado to guard Moctezuma, Cortés set out against De Narváez, who had advanced onto Cempoala. When the conquistadors were welcomed into the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan by the Emperor Montezuma in 1519, the Aztecs had controlled most of central Mexico by outright subjugation and through various systems of tribute. The Caciques gave Cortes "the most beautiful of their daughters and nieces". Maxixcatzin, Xicotencatl the Elder and Chichimecatecle told Cortés's men: "Consider yourselves at home. Mexican muralist Diego Rivera (1886–1957) painted History of Morelos, Conquest and Revolution on the walls of the Cortes Palace in Cuernavaca in 1929–1930. They placed the portable bridge in the first gap, but at that moment their movement was detected and Aztec forces attacked, both along the causeway and by means of canoes on the lake. Cortes realized that the defeat was imminent and decided to escape yet, the Aztecs attacked. July/August – Cortes' soldiers desecrate Cempoala, 16 August – Spaniards and Totonac allies embark on march toward the Valley of Tenochtitlan, passing Citlatapetl and many other notable geographic landmarks like Cofre de Perote, 31 August – Tlaxcalteca attack Spaniards after they enter Tlaxcalteca territory and succeed in killing two horsemen. Prescott read and used all the formal writings from the sixteenth century, although few had been published by the mid-nineteenth century when he was writing. 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