E. hypericifolia (Linn.) Spotted spurge branches frequently at the base, forming a spreading mat against barren ground that is about 6-18" across, but usually less than 1" tall (Hilty 2009). Many spurges use colorful bracts (modified leaves—think of the red 'petals' of a poinsettia) or flower appendages (glands) to attract pollinators and this species is no exception. The flowers are small, simple, and bright yellow, and the fruit a small capsule with one seed in each cell. New leaves are typically hairy, especially lower leaf surfaces. Canada, United States and part of Mexico. The decoction is taken in asthmatic conditions, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema, the tincture being used in coryza and hay fever. Harvest leaves as flowers begin to bloom, cutting top leaves, stems, and flowers if desired. Plants of the genus Euphorbia are prolific producers of diterpenes of great biomedical interest. It has been used in cholera, diarrhcea and dysentery in the form of an infusion of the leaves, and has been found to contain caoutchouc resin, tannin, and apparently euphorbon. The oil is a very violent poison, producing violent purgation and having an irritating effect upon the mucous membrane of the intestinal canal, and especially on the larger intestines; the oil resembles croton oil. (Syn. Causes low toxicity if eaten and minor skin irritation that typically lasts only a few minutes. Graceful Spurge is a perennial branched herb, spreading to erect, growing up to 2 feet high. A MODERN HERBAL Home Page, © Copyright Protected 1995-2020 Botanical.com. WHITE PURSLANE (E. corollata). At the Cape, the capsules are used for destroying animals. It is said that exhalations from the tree cause the loss of eyesight; the juice is considered sudorific and, according to Sonnerat, is administered in India, in doses of a drachm, mixed with flour, daily as an antisyphilitic. From A. laccifera gum-lac, of a very superior quality, is obtained; another excellent drying oil is obtained from Sapium sebiferum, known as Chinese tallow. Most are green, but other colors are available, too. In countries bordering on the Mediterranean, E. Peplis, E. spinosa, E. Dendroides, E. Aleppica, E. Apois, are used as purgatives in domestic practice. 'PILLBEARING SPURGE' (E. pilulifera) is commonly known as Queensland asthma weed, cat's hair, in allusion to its globular, axillary inflorescences. Spurges are well-managed by most preemergence herbicides labeled for use. Broken stems and branches secrete a milky, poisonous sap. Branches alternate along the stem. The sap of spotted spurge is being studied for its treatment of skin cancer. Warts and corns anointed with it are said soon to disappear, but great caution is needed in using it, or injury is likely to result to the surrounding skin. When stems are broken or injured they emit a milky white sap similar to dandelion. Spotted spurge (Euphorbia maculata) is a summer annual with a taproot; it has an open and prostrate mat-forming growth habit. Formerly it was used as an emetic in 10 to 20 grains, and as a cathartic in 3 to 10 grains, but because of its irritating and uncertain properties its use has been practically abandoned; the recent root bruised and applied to the skin produces vesication. Wait 3 weeks to reseed. Spotted spurge weed can quickly invade a lawn or garden bed and make a nuisance of itself. Life Cycle: Annual Recommended Propagation Strategy: Seed Country Or Region Of Origin: Southeast Canada to Belize, Cuba, and Bahamas Distribution: Canada, United States and part of Mexico. (Leafy Spurge) of Europe. Overview Information Euphorbia hirta is an herb. Like other legumes, they add nitrogen to the Spread out to dry in a cool, ventilated area and store the dried herb in an airtight container or bag to preserve its potency. The medicinal properties of the family depend chiefly upon two classes of constituents; first, fixed oils, or the fatty acids freed by their decomposition, typical properties of which are castor oil, from Recinus communis, and Croton oil, from Croton tigilum; also valuable drying oils, the artists' oil or lambang from the seeds of Aleurites moluccana, tung oil, said to be the most perfect drying oil known, from seeds of A. cordata. Be sure to follow label directions and only use on listed grass types. Is said to be a valuable astringent; an infusion may be employed as an injection in the treatment of leucorrhoea. (Mountain Snow) of western U.S.A. E. Drummondii, the juice, has caused many fatalities to sheep and cattle in Australia. The taste is slight, but becomes very acrid. It is a violent irritant and caustic poison. Spotted spurge leaves are opposite and often have a pur-ple blotch at the base of each leaf. Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day). Jul 10, 2017 - Explore Jeanie Campbell's board "Spurge" on Pinterest. While Euphorbia amygdaloides 'Purpurea' is, technically, an evergreen plant, its vegetation can suffer considerably during an average winter in colder climates, such … E. tetragona, E. antiguorum of the African coast, and E. canariensis of the Canary Islands also supply the drug. Mole Plant.) They can be easily distinguished from each other because Euphorbia prostrata has shorter leaves that are more rounded at the tips and there is no spot in the center. The dust is so intensely irritant to the mucous membrane that the mouth and nose of those handling it must be covered by a cloth. E. hiberna was formerly much used in syphilis before the introduction of mercury. The small greenish-white flowers appear in summer and early fall. This herb is traditionally been used as an aphrodisiac. E. pekinensis (Chinese: 大戟; pinyin: dàjǐ) is used in traditional Chinese medicine, where it is regarded as one of the 50 fundamental herbs. ; the juice is used. For external use it is of service in chronic rheumatism and paralysis as a counter-irritant, alone, or combined with cantharides, merezeon bark, etc., or as a plaster when mixed with Burgundy pitch or resin. Another analysis gives euphorbone, euphorbo-resene, euphorbic acid, calcium malate, a very acrid substance not yet isolated, and vegetable debris. Is very common in all tropical countries. Diseases, Insects, and Other Plant Problems:  There are no known diseases or insect problems. ---Other Species--- Small patches of spotted spurge plants can also be killed using a read-to-use lawn weed killer, like Scotts® Spot Weed Control for Lawns. It is typically found in sidewalk cracks, gravel, roadsides, gardens, and sometimes woodlands. It is a powerful irritant, mildly caustic; the milky juice preserved with salicylic acid is used. E. prostata grows in the south-western portions of the U.S.A., and has the reputation of being a specific against the bite of the rattlesnake, spiders, etc. Its habitat is east and central North America. Spotted spurge is a summer annual weed with a prostrate growth habit that flourishes in warm climates and dies back after frost. Roots: Leafy spurge roots are brown with pinkish buds. See more ideas about Weed, Plants, Weeds in lawn. CAPER SPURGE (E. lathyris). Creeping Spurge Euphorbia spp. Small, dark green 1 1/2 inch, leaves with reddish green tint that are round or oblong. If you have a large spotted spurge problem in the lawn, apply a product meant for broadcast application. E. Helisscopia juice is commonly applied to warts, and sometimes, though improperly, used to cure sore eyelids, causing in many instances intolerable pain and inflammation. Catmint can be used fresh, dried, or frozen for both culinary and herbal use. These two plants, purslane and spurge are very widespread. In doses of 5 drops it is said to be less acrid and irritating than croton oil; it must be recently extracted. Spurge Family Spotted Spurge, Sandmat Chamaesyce spp. The plant forms a thick taproot, which can extend two feet into the soil, and it rarely or never roots at the leaf nodes. The parts of the plant that grow above the ground are used to make medicine. Stems often turning a pale red in bright sunlight. Tincture of Euphorbia, B.P.C., from E. pilulifera, 10 to 30 minims. 12.3.1.1 Euphorbia paralias (Euphorbiaceae). The juice of E. tribuloides, a small cactusshaped species growing in the Canaries, is there used as a diaphoretic. White Parsley, Purging or Emetic Root, Apple Root, Wild Hippo. It can be cultivated in a prairie garden. Although spotted spurge sap is being studied as a cure for various skin cancers, in general, the sap of … Do not use grass clippings for compost or mulch. It branches freely from the base. Be sure to wear gloves due to the irritating sap. Has a milky juice of an acrid nature. Though said to be a remedy for toothache, it is not to be recommended on account of its very acrid nature. Harvesting and Uses of Catmint Herb. (1) Damiana has been shown to help boost energy and reduce the effects of exhaustion. Repeat treatment may be necessary for prostrate spurge and wild violet. WHITE IPECACUANHA (E. ipecacuanha), the root of which is used, contains a fixed oil, starch, glucose, and various salts, also resin. E. hypericifolia is regarded in tropical America as a powerful astringent and has a reputation in the cure of diarrhoea and dysentery; it has also narcotic properties. Modern research supports this use as well. All spurges have a three-lobed, chambered fruit. Common weed petty spurge 'could treat' skin cancer. SPOTTED SPURGE (E. maculata) represents a group used by eclectics and homoeopaths with claims for properties more or less special. In France it is used as a popular purgative, under the name of Rhubarbe? E. parviflora and E. hirta. Spurge leaves are oval to ovate on some species, but others are linear. ?des pauvres. When the stems are broken they emit a milky juice. E. peplus, E. peploides, E. pilosa, E. palustris have the reputation of being remedies in hydrophobia. The seeds and leaves of E. thymifolia of India are given by the Tamuls as an anthelmintic and in bowel affections of children. Martins Ekor, in Toxicological Survey of African Medicinal Plants, 2014. Kill large patches. A few nurseries sell it, but it may be necessary to grow it from seed. To this medicinal group belongs: E. esula (Linn.) Spurges are some of the most common warm-season weeds in container nurseries, agriculture, and landscape ornamental beds. Slender hairy stems spread out in a mat along the ground with each stem rarely greater than 18 inches long. The juice of E. linearis is employed in Brazil for syphilitic ulcers of the cornua. By Michelle Roberts Health reporter, BBC News. Its principal constituents are resins described as glucosidal, wax, and volatile matter; it is collected whilst flowering and fruiting, and has been utilized by some practitioners with a certain success in the treatment of subacute and chronic inflammation of the respiratory duct. Southeast Canada to Belize, Cuba, and Bahamas. Purslane tastes really good. The plant is extensively employed by the peasantry of Kerry for stupefying fish, and so powerful are its qualities that a small basket filled with the bruised leaves will poison the fish for several miles down the river. Aug 11, 2015 - This is going to be a very important blog entry. The acrid resin is soluble in alcohol, and will burn brilliantly, becoming very aromatic. the species. SPOTTED SPURGE (E. maculata) represents a group used by eclectics and homoeopaths with claims for properties more or less special. It flows down the stems and encrusts them as it hardens in the sun. Fluid extract of E. pilulifera, 1/2 to 1 drachm. The reddish or green prostrate stems form a mat-like growth which often chokes out desirable turfgrasses. E. balsamifera, when cooked, is eaten in the Canaries. It is an irritant emetic and cathartic. After germinating in mid-spring, the plant’s inconspicuous green flowers bloom from June until September. https://www.herbal-supplement-resource.com/sun-spurge-uses-benefits.html The leaves of spotted spurge have a "spot" or line of maroon in the center of the leaf vein. ---Constituents---The chief constituent is resin, and it also contains wax, calcium malate, potassium malate, lignin, bassorin, volatile oil, and water, with no soluble gum. of North America. The cup-shaped "flowers" are axillary, the petal-like appendages are greenish-white with pink to white on the rim. It branches freely from the base. This plant spreads aggressively. The milky juice of E. amydaloides is very acrid, and though not highly poisonous, corrodes and ulcerates the flesh wherever it is applied. Showy modified leaves (technically called bracts) provide visual interest. Because spurges flower when young and have little or no seed dormancy, weed populations can increase rapidly. It has been used in cholera, diarrhcea and dysentery in the form of an infusion of the leaves, and has been found to contain caoutchouc resin, tannin, and … The same properties are possessed by E. platyphylla, and in Brazil E. cotinifolia is used for the same purpose, and the acrid juice which drops from it is used by the natives to poison their arrows. Remove plants as quickly as possible to reduce seed production; though they can be time-consuming to hand weed due to the number of seedlings that form. Learn this … Even tiny seedlings can flower and set prolific amounts of seed which has limited or no dormancy. E. humistrata (Engl.) Fast growing, tiny 3-lobed, hairy egg-shaped pale brown capsule. Spotted spurge is similar to Euphorbia prostrata and is also known by the common name, Prostrate Spurge. Uses (Ethnobotany): The sap of spotted spurge is being studied for its treatment of skin cancer. E. ligularia, another native of India, is held sacred to Munsa, the goddess of serpents; the root of the tree, mixed with black pepper, is employed for the cure of snake-bites, both internally and externally. The small, oblong leaves grow opposite on the stem and have an irregular maroon to purple spot in the center. It is destructive to sheep, and La Motte has seen a woman perish from having taken a lavement prepared with the plant. Syn. Purslane is so important and so tasty that it deserves its own entry. Besides the cathartic properties resident in the fixed oils of these seeds, somewhat similar properties, almost always accompanied by more or less emesis, exists in the plant-parts generally, the active constituents being usually carried in the milk juices, so that the family has yielded a large number of drugs used somewhat like Ipecacuanha. The genus Euphorbia comprises nearly a thousand species, and a large number of these species yield a milky juice. Some are herbaceous or shrubby, with or without leaves, the leafless varieties flourishing on African deserts like the cactus, having spiny stems. Its medicinal properties are similar to E. corollata. Spotted spurge is a creeping weed that germinates later in the summer than most weeds. It has been used in dropsy; mixed with cantharides as a 'gout plaister'; and as an errhine in chronic brain, ear, or eye complaints, sometimes mitigated with the powder of Convallaria maialis, but accidents have led to its use being discontinued. The whole plant is used, including the root. The root of the plant is equally purgative and emetic; the leaves are vesicant and are used by beggars to produce ulcers by which to excite pity; the juice is depilatory; the seeds contain aesculetin in the free state. Read our Commitment to Diversity | Read our Privacy Statement. E. tirucalli is employed in India as a vesicant, and in Java as a powerful emetic and purgative. It has a central taproot that can reach 24 inches below the soil surface. Euphorbia paralias, which belongs to this group, is a hardy perennial plant inhabiting sandy coasts and shingle beaches and it is native to the entire Mediterranean region. Mowing is ineffective because plants grow so close to the ground. The reddish or green prostrate stems form a mat-like growth which often chokes out desirable turfgrasses. infused in a pint of boiling water for 1/2 hour and a tablespoonful taken for a dose. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. E. hypericifolia: an infusion of the dried leaves, 1/2 OZ. N.C. It is shown to increase sperm count in males and the strength … [Read More...] about What is Damiana used for? The use of specific leafy spurge beetles that feed exclusively on the plant has shown good promise as a biological control. of Europe (Sun or Wart Spurge, Churnstaff, Seven Sisters). Honey from bees feeding extensively on leafy spurge is reportedly bitter due to the presence of diterpenoids. Both used in India as antisyphilitics, and E. canescens similarly in Spain. E. cremocarpus is used in Australia for the poisoning of fish in calm pools and streams. Its seeds yield an abundance of fine clear oil called oil of Euphorbia; this is obtained by expression or by the action of alcohol or ether, and is colourless, inodorous, and almost insipid; it rapidly becomes rancid, and acquires a dangerous acrimony. The fava bean (Vicia faba) is an important food crop, and several other species of vetch are cultivated as fodder and cover crops and as green manure. Its chief use is as a vesicant, and principally in veterinary practice. E. corollata: dose of dried root as an emetic, 10 to 20 grains; as a cathartic, 3 to 10 grains. The seeds to the number of twelve or fifteen are used by country people in France as a purgative. It may produce delirium. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), disability, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, and veteran status. Keep reading to learn how to get rid of spotted spurge. It is said to be employed as an ingredient of paint used for preserving ships' bottoms. Do not apply to bermudagrass sod farms. Solarizing the Soil Solarize the soil during the summer months. ---Description---Resembling a cactus in appearance, this leafless perennial plant has a stem about 4 feet in height, and many branches. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea when ingested; redness, swelling, blisters after some delay following contact with skin and exposure to sunlight. ---Dosage---Compound Elixir of Euphorbia, C.F., from E. pilulifera. Make sure that you pull this we… E. heterodoxa, a Brazilian species, said to have been used with extraordinary success against cancerous and syphilitic ulcers. E. marginata (Pursh.) It is reported by Scopoli, in his Flora Carnoilica, that he has seen death occasioned by the administration of 30 grains of the seed of E. esula, and gangrene caused on the belly by the application of the plant on that part; he also adds that people have lost their eyesight by rubbing their eyes with its juice. At Mogador, the branches are used for tanning leather. The sap of many spurge family plants is caustic or a skin/eye irritant. An herbal website says that historically the plant was used to treat cholera, diarrhea, and dysentery. The bark of the roots of E. Gerardiane, E. amydaloides and E. Cyparissias have febrifuge reputations; but the latter is known to possess dangerous properties. It is native to the tropical Americas and as with most euphorbias, contains a milky sap that is a skin and eye irritant, so wear gloves and eye protection when handling this plant. Other than wild berries I think that purslane is my favorite foraging food. The sap of spotted sandmat is an irritant for many people although it has traditional medicinal uses. Spurge, (genus Euphorbia), one of the largest flowering-plant genera, with 2,420 species, many of which are important to man as ornamentals, sources of drugs, or as weeds.The genus takes its common name from a group of annual herbs used as purgatives, or spurges, mainly the 1-metre- (3.3-foot-) tall European E. lathyris, seeds of which were once used for their laxative effect. The powder is yellowish, and violently sternatatory. This tough and vigorous grower quickly fills a garden space. Using proper spotted spurge control can not only eliminate it from your yard, but can also help prevent it from growing in your yard in the first place. It abounds in lactiferous ducts, which contain starch; the resin is or carries the actual principle, the presence of glucoside is conjecture. Spotted spurge generally has prostrate stems that can grow up to about 20 inches (50 cm) in length, but stems can grow upward when competing for light with other plants. NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to A: Spotted spurge (Euphorbia maculata) is a low-growing annual weed that frequently invades turfgrass. Several medicinal uses by the Cherokee are reported including a treatment for cancer, a purgative, an ointment for sores, and numerous uses of the root: a physic, a treatment for pin worms, and treatment of urinary tract diseases. Once established, each bright green plant forms a thick mat that can grow up to three feet in diameter—but since it stays low to the ground, mowing it won’t help. Orfila regards it as a poison. Reproduction: Leafy spurge reproduces by vegetative re-growth from spreading roots and by the production of large quantities of seeds that are often dispersed by birds, wildlife, humans, and in rivers and streams. The juice is said to cause temporary blindness when applied to the eyes; it contains caoutchouc, gallic acid, resin and tannin. ---Medicinal Action and Uses---The internal use of the drug has been abandoned, owing to the severity of its action. E. buxifolia in the West Indies, E. papillosa in Brazil, E. laurifolia in Peru, and E. portulacoides in Chile are used as purgatives. Pros: Game birds attracted to the seeds seem to be the only animal that uses the plant as a food source. The juice of E. Mauritanica, when dried, is employed as a condiment, and forms one of the adulterations of Scammony. The milky juice of the stem coagulates on exposure to the air, forming a resinous mass which is generally marketed in the form of tears. Seeds grow fast, have little to no dormancy period, are hydrophilic, and can adhere to surfaces when they are wet. Euphorbia maculata, known as spotted spurge or prostrate spurge, the latter name not to be confused with Euphorbia prostrata, is a fast-growing annual plant in the family Euphorbiaceae, native to North America.It is a common garden and lawn weed in the United States. E. helioscopia (Linn.) Spotted spurge can overgrow sparse turf areas and low-growing ground covers, and invade open areas in … of central North America. Vetch, (genus Vicia), genus of about 140 species of herbaceous plants in the pea family (Fabaceae). Common Name Index Spotted spurge is easy to spot. What You Need to Know About Spotted Spurge A passing reference says the sap has been used against warts, but with caution as a person can get an overdose - even on the skin. Specimens sent to Kew in 1870 have never flowered, but others have done so in Paris. form a strategic partnership called N.C. The milky juice is collected from incisions made in the fleshy branches, and is so acrid that it burns the fingers. The spotted spurge weed, also known as the prostrate spurge, is the most common type of spurge and is toxic to animals if eaten in large amounts. Toxic doses have killed small animals through failure of respiration. Solarization is most effective when … It forms a high mat usually an inch or two tall with a cluster of slender, much-branched stems originating from a single, also slender deep growing taproot. In commerce the drug is found in yellowish-brown 'tears' that have a waxy appearance. … Several Euphorbia species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), like the spurge hawkmoths (Hyles euphorbiae and Hyles tithymali), as well as the giant leopard moth. Spotted spurge (Euphorbia maculata) is a summer annual with a taproot; it has an open and prostrate mat-forming growth habit. Some have a large dark spot on the leaf blade as well as small teeth on the margins. Prostrate spurge is a mat forming annual herb of the euphorbia family that is native to all of the contiguous United States, most Canadian provinces and much of Mexico. Poor Arabs bring in the resinous masses for sale in Morocco, whence it is chiefly exported from Mogador. Decoction of E. pilulifera, 1 in 40, 1 tablespoonful. Both Pliny and Dioscorides knew the drug, and its name is classical. Spurge is one of the most diverse and largest classes of plants with over 2,000 species in the family. Because of the spotted spurge weeds mat-like nature, hand pulling is a good option for removing spotted spurge from the lawn or flower beds. They are almost transparent, slightly aromatic only when heated, and often pierced with holes made by the prickles of the plant while drying. Quali-Pro formulation: maintain 0.5 inch height for warm season turf. 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