According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Green Building Council, construction and operation of all buildings in the United States result in the following consumption of resources: 1. Responsible resource management is at the core of our operating processes. 0000000016 00000 n Previous sustainability assessment researches and their frameworks have been derived, mostly, from EIA or strategic environmental assessment. Precautionary Construction Management for Sustainability, 2. The undefined socio-related factors and their subjectivity, as well as the different views and priorities of the stakeholders, make it difficult to identify what improvements are required (Bentivegna, 1997; Missimer et al., 2010). Define the social core functions (SCFs) of a construction project. As shown in Figure 1, the stakeholders’ communities interact with construction project through certain social functions. Although the measurement methods require a particular outcome across every core function to achieve the idealized outcomes in projects (e.g. Construction Services Plant and equipment, steel fabrication, concrete technology Into G ... SUSTAINABILITY REPORT MANAGEMENT APPROACHES 2018-2019 3 Our risk management approach covers all elements of ... shall adopt a precautionary approach in our operations Our Nestlé in Society website features our activities on environmental sustainability and water. The relationship between a construction project and its surrounding environment, or its neighbourhood community, is usually addressed under topics such as urban sustainability, sustainable built environment and sustainable livelihoods. 9, pp. Examine the challenges in the management of health and safety in construction sites in Kenya 2. and Goodwin, N.R. Almahmoud E, Doloi HK. The project is planned to be developed in phases; the farmer’s market is the first phase of the development. 4, pp. defined the desire to perform activities without any depletion of resources or bringing any harmful effect on the environment It is the only CM certification accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) under the International Organization for Standardization’s ISO … To collect the data for this case study project, an ethics application was made through the University of Melbourne, and the clearance was obtained before starting the data collection process. endstream endobj 41 0 obj<. Assessment of Social Sustainability in Construction Projects Using Social Network Analysis. Each day of the week will be scheduled to a selected activity, so each market will run on a weekly basis. They advocated that the stakeholder’s categorization method often overlooked the importance of the stakeholders’. �M*k yF%�8�^�`�F���T�_��������MB��g{�$L*E�6��o��� R�,~��NX�j�/��ҡ?��0���R)*~�^BP��pl�`�&K�8���wt�e��ut$k:u��G=��#���c����� 5��9F˽���)dSYAs�p���*�4�"Ɔ�$O�C\��D����/��f����ߎ�%Ɍ?Ɉ��=�r���wFE�B����v��g_wa�g;uѪ%נud�T�? Further, they suggested it to be used to strengthen the relationship and the network of the community and to sustain the function of the community’s social systems. For instance, in Saudi Arabia, billions of dollars are spent in the construction industry; unfortunately, the money spent does not always guarantee many opportunities for jobs, skills development or improvements in the local economy (Allam, 2011). 92-117. The evaluation method is similar to the POE evaluation method that includes site visits, interviews and observation of the users (Preiser, 2001). We espouse the Conscious Capitalism philosophy because it aligns with our mission: increasing sustainability, eco-industry, prosperity, life. The maximum possible score is 5; 0000007080 00000 n 7 No. Allam, A. Building a construction project stimulates the construction market through running a large, continuous and long process from the project studies until the building is demolished. 3, pp. 18 Nos 10/11, pp. 1, pp. Table 4 (Column 2) shows the importance of the stakeholders in terms of eigenvector centrality. Precautionary Construction Management for Sustainability, 2. <<7677BA7D10B5834D9713AC4D76277E47>]>> By adopting sustainable construction, contractors would make the construction plan or sustainable site plan to minimize the environmental impact of the project. The functionality and efficacy of the model need to be further tested outside the Saudi Arabian region. 60 0 obj<>stream Over the past 30 years, the post-occupancy evaluation (POE) has been advanced, which seeks to evaluate how well the building is satisfying and meeting the occupants’ requirements on health, safety, security, functionality and effeminacy, psychological comfort, aesthetic quality and satisfaction (Preiser, 2001). Preiser, W.F.E. The criteria related to the core functions provide a good basis for assessing social performance in the project. Construction Management and Economics: Vol. Liu, A.M.M., Fellows, R. and Tuuli, M.M. The relation between the two sets of actors is the stakeholders’ interests related to the social functions. Thus, an assessment of the social performance with an appropriate functionality with a whole life cycle view is quite a challenging task. The mapping of the relationships between the project stakeholders, with respect to their relative stakes and seven social core functions, have been integrated into the assessment model. Bentivegna (1997) identified that the evaluation techniques are only able to represent some of the aspects of the whole system of effects, along with the sharing of only a few of the interests involved in the decision process. The output of the model is the quantified measurement of the project’s ability to deliver social values to its stakeholders over the project’s life cycle. The Precautionary Principle counters such general presumptions. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen (DGNB). However, the lack of a common structure and language for analyzing sustainability in projects as well as the absence of specific tools mean the lack of a framework that can be useful and applicable to projects. As asserted by Littig and Griessler (2005), social issues are created through the relationship between nature and society, and are mediated by work, as well as the relationship within the society. The precautionary principle has had a short but tumultuous history in environmental policy. Site Selection & Planning For guidance on the siting of facilities, agencies should refer to Instructions for Implementing Sustainable Locations for Federal Facilities.6 The Sustainable Locations document includes information on how site selection can promote transit-oriented development, walkability and 2�S�(L|ٱt�1�^��\ � The eigenvector score for any node is equal to: where n is the size of the vertex set as the node belongs. Wells, J. Making your research visible helps you leap into new research opportunities. Therefore, the social issues, created through the interactions with the project and communities, can be addressed according to the network system of the actors. The social performance of the project in relation to the industry community was 71.4 per cent, which explains the shortage in the social performance. Sustainability through reduction of resources wastes and increase processes efficiency is the main goal of all sectors. j = stakeholders’ eigenvector centrality index; Making a home smart and sustainable means the occupant ... • Precautionary behaviour—where there are threats of serious or irreversible environmental damage, lack of ... Sustainability is a very broad, all encompassing concept that In its broadest sense, Harris and Goodwin (2001) stated that: a socially sustainable system must achieve fairness in distribution and opportunity, adequate provision of social services, including health and education, gender equity, and political accountability and participation. EIA was developed in the early 1970s, and since then, it has received significant attention, especially after environmental issues emerged. (2008), “Critical factors for improving social sustainability of urban renewal projects”, Social Indicators Research, Vol. The SNA uses functions, such as the degree of the centrality of an actor, which is the sum of the direct ties to the other actors. •Innovation and change management for sustainability •Inter-organisational networks and partnerships •Mining and sustainability •Precautionary principle •Pollution reduction •Regions and urban transformation •Renewable energy Sustainable Consumption •Alternative consumption patters •Degrowth •Environmental economics Chappells, H. and Shove, E. (2005), “Debating the future of comfort: environmental sustainability, energy consumption and the indoor environment”, Building Research and Information, Vol. In particular, it has multi-faceted social values which, in turn, are influenced by numerous stakeholders. Hence, the stakeholders’ perceptions of the importance of the social resources in the project can be defined as a weight of the links. In addition, most sellers in the project complained about the territoriality of their spots which were not clearly defined. 39 percent of total energy used 3. This paper presents a framework for social performance assessment in the context of the social sustainability of construction projects. In the UK, the government issued Section 106 planning agreement and the Community Infrastructure Levy to minimize the negative impact of development on local communities and to encourage the delivery of social sustainability objectives, such as job opportunities for locals and infrastructure provision. The higher the eigenvector centrality, the more important the stakeholder and the SCFs are in the network. 0000007602 00000 n The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio Summit, was held at Rio de Janeiro from 3-14 June, 1992. 2, pp. Thus, the development of construction projects has the capacity to enhance social sustainability and to contribute to sustainable development (Du Plessis, 2002) through providing welfare, health, safety and social harmony for the stakeholders of this community (Talukhaba et al., 2005). A quieter part of the sustainability story is the evolution in construction techniques and materials acquisition that can reduce waste, energy and various inefficiencies at building sites. When there is uncertainty regarding the impacts of an activity, the Precautionary Principle advocates action to anticipate and avert environmental harm. sustainable management is a necessity; in order to change the profession of project management into a true profession [1]. The enhancement of social sustainability in this community will result in enormous repercussions, because it is considered to be the largest industrial employer worldwide with 111 million employees. Although construction projects produce enormous social values, the complexity of the relationships of these values and the project stakeholders impede the measurement of the social performance. In the case study, one of the key SNA measures, the eigenvector centrality of the stakeholders, were normalized to give the three communities equal importance (Faust, 1997). Hence, the creation process of the social issues, through the construction projects, needs to be carefully mapped to be aligned with the sustainable development objectives. As every stakeholder presents quite differing interests and satisfactions in any project, the use of SNA adequately facilitates management of such conflicts with a converging outcome in the model. 32-40. 0000001566 00000 n 296-307. In addition, the employment intensity of the construction industry is much higher in low-income countries than in the high-income countries (Wells, 2001). Maignan and Ferrell (2004) defined four primary viewpoints of CSR, including stakeholder obligations, social obligations, ethical commitment and managerial perspective. 15, pp. construction and project management at University College London (UCL). The result of the application clearly highlighted the areas of underperformance and provides a basis for enhancements. Major operations are regularly screened by experts according to a loss prevention methodology, with frequent support from our insuring partners. Twenty stakeholders were identified across 14 key roles in the project (as listed in Tables II and III). As the term social is multi-lateral, the definition of the concept is subject to the context of the definition. Environmental law is a collective term encompassing aspects of the law that provide protection to the environment. (2011), “What is social sustainability? This article presents a history and rationale for the precautionary principle and some steps for its implementation in sustainability policies. sustainability is an increasingly important part of our corporate communication strategy involving media relations and engagement with non-governmental organisations, special interest groups, governments and public authorities. and Bowen, P.A. The normalization of the (a) and (c) values is a standard recommended practice to improve the interpretations, as discussed by Borgatti and Everett (1997). 0000002037 00000 n 0000004398 00000 n Two other underperforming SCFs, related to the industry community, were accessibility (F3) and operation health and safety (F7). 3, pp. Lamprinidi, S. and Ringland, L. (2008), “A snapshot of sustainability reporting in the construction and real estate sector”, available at: globalreporting.org/NR/rdonlyres/ 13865428-9EAC-4EB0-A8E3-A31AA2F5C38C/3470/CRESSReport.pdf (accessed 31 July 2011). Global Reporting Initiative (GRI). Although these core functions came last, they should not be marginalized in their importance because they have a direct influence on a specific community. 6 No. Waste management plan for England - Designing Buildings Wiki - Share your construction industry knowledge. The new building produces social interactions within the neighbourhood domain; these social interactions become a means for economic benefit. With every new material and technology utilised in the field, also risks are growing. These initiatives provide both training and employment opportunities for construction workers. Having identified the knowledge gap within the published research in the area of social sustainability, the current research aims to develop a dynamic model for social sustainability assessment. 27 No. 24 No. Consequently, the social dimension has received less appreciation within the context of sustainable development (Hill and Bowen, 1997; Edum-Fotwe and Price, 2009). The second factor, health and physical comfort (F2), seeks to ensure the project’s compliance with the regulations and requirements of the health, safety and physical comfort of the neighbourhood and the users’ communities. 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