White Paper for the Proceedings of the Texas Conference on Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning, Proceedings of the Texas NSP Conference, Corpus Christi (Texas), April 27-34. Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) I grew up with red tides in the Pacific Northwest and its accompanying PSP caused by saxitoxin. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP) produces an intoxication syndrome nearly identical to that of ciguatera in which gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms predominate. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) Brevitoxin originates from the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, which contains Protogonylaulax catanella. Treatment of shellfish poisoning depends on the type of poisoning and may include oral charcoal or a stomach pump. ↑ Morris PD et al. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning: Public Health and Human Health Effects. Other reported effects include rectal-burning pain, headache, bradycardia, and mydriasis. shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins; thes e ar e a group of more than ten natural neurotoxins . and J. Easom. Fleming, L.E. 1998. In addition, formation of toxic aerosols by wave action can produce respiratory asthma-like symptoms. Shellfish poisoning (amnesic, neurotoxic, paralytic, and diarrhetic) is caused by eating contaminated shellfish. Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is one of the four recognized syndromes of shellfish poisoning, which share some common features and are primarily associated with bivalve mollusks (such as mussels, clams, oysters and scallops).These shellfish are filter feeders and accumulate neurotoxins, chiefly saxitoxin, produced by microscopic algae, such as dinoflagellates, diatoms, and cyanobacteria. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP) is a disease caused by the consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins; these arten natural neurotoxins e a group of more than produced by the marine dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis (formerly known as Gymnodinium breve and Ptychodiscus brevis) [1]. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning is characterised by a combination of gastrointestinal effects (abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhoea) and neurological effects (paraesthesia, “temperature reversal”, myalgia, vertigo, and ataxia), similar to ciguatera. Epidemiol Infect. Clinical and epidemiological features of neurotoxic shellfish poisoning in North Carolina. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by eating shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins produced by the dinoflagellate K. brevis. Am J Public Health. most common syndromes are diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, ciguatera poisoning, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, paralytic shellfish poisoning and amnesic shellfish poisoning; Transmission: consumption of seafood contaminated by toxin. Symptoms start with a tingling of the lips but can progress to total paralysis and even death…from one clam. ↑James KJ et al. Toxins can survive most cooking and freezing processes applied to food Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning is related to the ingestion of brevitoxin found in the shellfish, including oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops. 2010;138(7):927-40. Toxins can survive most cooking and freezing processes applied to food Saxitoxin is one of the more potent, and lethal toxins known. most common syndromes are diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, ciguatera poisoning, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, paralytic shellfish poisoning and amnesic shellfish poisoning; Transmission: consumption of seafood contaminated by toxin. 1991;81(4):471-4. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: brevitoxin. Seafood Poisonings. Predominately an illness of the Western Hemisphere (southeastern coast of the United States, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean), there are also reports of the disease from New Zealand. Shellfish toxicity: human health implications of marine algal toxins. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP) is a dis ease caused by the consumption of molluscan . 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